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英國assignment代寫|Crime Victim Provisions

瀏覽: 日期:2020-06-10

Critically explore the needs of victims of crime and the services currently provided for them. Include reference to the demands of the victim movement and the limitations of the current criminal justice system.

The recent years in the UK and throughout the world has seen the importance and influence of human rights growing. This has had an effect on the law as a whole, but instead of the good of society being protected by statute and common law the individual has come to the forefront, i.e. an individual's rights cannot be derogated unless a set criterion is followed. Therefore this focus on the individual has not only given stricter rules for the courts and police to follow in respect to suspected and convicted criminals, it has also laid an emphasis on the individual victim and the resources, after-care and support, as well the effect on sentencing in respect to criminal cases and restitution or compensation in respect to civil cases.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例The recent rise of the role of victims in the Criminal Justice system is highly important, which will be identified in the discussion of restorative justice. The role model for incorporating the victim providing restitution and their needs can be seen in Australia within Victorian Criminal Justice System. Therefore this case study is not going to explore not the medical help that victims need and which have been procured, but their search for justice and restitution and compare it to the UK's approach to the victim in the Criminal Justice System.

It is here that the victim's rights groups are calling for justice, as seen in the recent Home Office Survey of Victim's Rights Groups wishes, i.e. a true role for the victim in the Justice system, especially Criminal Justice:
To genuinely reflect the needs of victims, the social rights referred to in the paper "The social rights of victims of crime" should be included in the new Charter, clearly identifying the agencies responsible for delivering them.

Restorative Justice
This is the most modern reasoning for sentencing and balances the various elements of the sentencing, such as the victim's needs, the rehabilitation of the offender, interests of protecting society. It could be adapted to include public opinion, but in the interests of justice it would need to be informed public opinion because the theory is Rawlsian in nature, which results in a theory from the standpoint of justice. Rawl's in his thesis for engendering equality states that justice is the prime basis of all government and to ensure justice, the access to justice for all is the obvious means and end to ensure justice is fulfilled; therefore in the Criminal Justice system this would include the access to justice for the offender, the victim, and the rights for the public to voice their opinion on sentencing of a convicted criminal. Rawl's theory is based on a few key ideas, which are the rights and duties of government/institution of society and the burdens and benefits of citizens co-operating. Rawls bases his theory on distributive justice, where inequalities are restrained by the greatest benefit of least advantaged and each person has the condition of fair equality of opportunity.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Therefore Rawls would allow for restorative justice but retribution would be unjust, rather aims to rehabilitate and return the perpetrator to society would be appropriate, i.e. in order for the perpetrator to compensate society because if the perpetrator is rehabilitated and educated then society will be benefited. Rawls would argue that there is a role for the victim in the sentencing procedure and for public opinion as long as the perpetrator is not subject to hatred, prejudice and vengeance that would be the fear if public opinion was allowed to take over the proceedings. Rather Rawls would argue there needs to be a balance between the rights of the perpetrator, the public's opinion and its protection and the victim's access to justice. There still needs to be the rule of law and objectivity but within the realms of these new considerations. It is possible that the perfect model the Victorian Sentencing Advisory Council has met these obstacles and created a system that allows an appropriate mixture of these elements.

Victorian Sentencing - The Victim Role in the Criminal Justice System
The VSAC was set up to ensure that there was just sentencing as well as allowing for the victim to have a sufficient statutory role in the sentencing procedure. This follows ensuring that the victim plays a proper role in respect to the criminal justice system. Yet in order for there not to be retributive and vengeance sentencing and in order to stop tainting of the trial before the judgment the role of the victim is closely monitored. Section 5 of the Sentencing Act 1991 ensures:

  • Just punishment - to punish the offender to an extent and in a manner which is just in all of the circumstances;
  • Specific and general deterrence - to deter the offender or other persons from committing offences of the same or a similar character;
  • Rehabilitation - to establish conditions within which it is considered by the court that the rehabilitation of the offender may be facilitated;
  • Denunciation - to denounce the type of conduct engaged in by the offender;
  • Community protection - to protect the community from the offender; or
  • a combination of two or more of the above purposes.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Therefore this limits the role of the victim and ensures that the defendant's rights and the victim's rights and community views are balanced. It also allows for informed public opinion to be taken into account in the sentencing procedure. This sentencing procedure takes the views of victims and the public in to account through a thoroughly monitored manner, rather than allowing the press to have a field day and public outcry. The Victorian sentencing procedure allows for the victim's views to be taken in the form of an impact statement and this only occurs if the defendant is found guilty, i.e. this system does not allow such views to taint the defendant's right to a fair hearing. In addition sentencing is gauged against informed public opinion rather than the outcry of the uneducated or the enraged so that there is a rounder understanding on the effects of the crime on the society and the individual.

The British Approach to Victims
The government has always been on the side of the victim - it takes on his or her case and seeks to punish the perpetrator - but it has no always done so with enough rigour or sensitivity of their needs.
essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例 Helena Kennedy focuses on the problem with the Criminal Justice System in the UK in respect to the lack of acknowledgment for the victim. In many ways the system is cold to the victim; it forgets there is more than retributive justice. The England and Wales Sentencing Advisory Council is made up of judges and academics, there is no real voice for the victim as in Australia. The only impact statements by the victim are those taken by the police and prosecution, when the victim is in a highly stressful situation. It pervading culture of the UK's system is that a conviction will satisfy the needs of the victim; this is not the case as the VSAC has seen. In many cases the victim needs to know why the crime happened and have the ability to talk the perpetrator.

Also this is a method that can help the perpetrator acknowledge the harm done and hopefully rehabilitate the offender, especially in the youth justice system. The UK system has recognized this and in has instituted this as an alternative to imprisonment in the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999. The key is the use of restorative justice, the approach taken in Australia, which is understanding and balancing the needs of the perpetrator and the victim. The problem in the UK is that on some levels it recognizes the need for this balance, but on others especially in the recent wakes of the terrorist attacks to forget about justice and civil liberties in order to have to power to punish anyone who mayessay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例 be a threat. It has followed the media frenzy of the US and forgotten about justice. The victim no longer figures in such approaches but the needs of the state. In order to satisfy the victims' needs there needs to be an inclusive role, such as answers, apologies, informing the offender of the impact of their crimes on innocent people, crime prevention and restitution.

This is harder in respect to serious crimes, but sometimes the reasons for the actions of the perpetrator not only help the victim to reconcile their experiences but it also ensures that the government understands the reasoning for certain crimes and make the perpetrator understand the impact of their crimes. Therefore the role of the victim in the Criminal Justice System is more than just attending a court room but can play a role in understanding and preventing crime. The VSAC has understood this problem and has introduced impact statements, as well as more diverse advisory panel and the influence of informed public opinion; rather than the pick 'n' mix that the UK's government is taking whenever it suits the needs of the state. This approach was verbalized by John Major during his leadership as condemn more and understand less but as Helena Kennedy argues the victims of crime, their desire is often to understand why a criminal acted as they did.

Conclusion
The objective approach that the VSAC makes it very hard for the press to create witch hunts and put pressure on the court to impose an unjust sentence in favour of perceived public opinion; rather the specific victims of the crime are taken into account. This objective approach halts and the fears that the courts will become a place for the media based witch hunts are stopped and justice for the victim is considered at the same time as balancing the justice for the defendant. This creates a unique approach to criminal justice and possibly a way forward for ensuring that victims do gain a voice, without the witch hunts that have been seen recently in the US, especially those held in Guatanamo Bay.

Also the UK system which is on the brink of following the US should heed the fears of those in the UK justice system against the media/witch hunt approach and follow the approach the VSAC and subsequent jurisdictions in Australia have taken, which is to balance the criminal justice between the public opinion, the victim and the defendent in an objective manner as Justice Badgery-Parker states: 
[T]he need which the criminal justice system exists to fulfil is the need to interpose between the victim and the criminal an objective instrumentality which, while recognising the seriousness of the crime from the victim's point of view and, in the case of murder, the magnitude of the loss which the victim's family and friends have sustained, attempts to serve a range of community interests which include but go beyond notions merely of retribution.

In order to do this there needs to be easy access to forums and practioners from the Criminal Justice system in order to stress the different reasoning behind sentencing procedures, as well as Victims ANDessay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例 Offender's rights groups in the UK.

Bibliography
R G Fox, 1995, Victorian Criminal Procedure: State and Federal Monash Law Book Co-operative

Freiberg, 2001,Sentencing Options, essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Sentencing Review 2001Discussion Paper

Freiberg, 2002, Pathways to Justice Sentencing Review 2002 Discussion Paper

Graycar & Morgan, 2005, Law Reform - What's in it for Women,essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例 Windsor Yearbook on Access to Justice Volume 23

Home Office, 2001, Review of the Victim's Charter: Summary of Responses can be found at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs/vcreviewvictims.html

Helena Kennedy, 2004, Just Law, Vintage Books
John Rawls, The Theory of Justice (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1971)

Rawls J., Justice as Fairness: a restatement, (E. Kelly Ed) (2001, Cambridge Mass, Harvard University press)

Ridge, M. 2003 'Giving the dead their due' Ethics 114: 38-59.

Sentencing Advisory Council, About Sentencing - Principles and Purposesessay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例, can be found at: http://www.sentencingcouncil.vic.gov.au/CA256F82000D281D/page/About+Sentencing?OpenDocument&1=20-About+Sentencing~&2=~&3=~

 

認真探索犯罪的受害者,目前提供的服務為他們的需求。包括受害者運動的要求和當前的刑事司法系統的局限性。
近年來在英國和世界各地的人權不斷增長的重要性和影響力。這已作為一個整體的法律效果,但代替了良好的社會保護個人已經到了最前沿的法規及普通法,即個人權利不得克減,除非后面是一組標準。因此,這不僅專注于個人的法院和警察跟著就懷疑和被定罪的罪犯更嚴格的規則,它也奠定了受害者個人的重視和資源后,關心和支持,以及在影響量刑的刑事案件和民事案件的賠償或補償。
最近興起的刑事司法系統的受害者的角色是非常重要的,這將是確定在恢復性司法的討論。在澳大利亞維多利亞刑事司法系統內的示范作用,把受害者提供賠償和他們的需求可以看出。因此,這種情況下,研究是不是要探索的受害者需要醫療幫助,并已采購,但他們尋求正義和歸還,并比較它英國的做法,在刑事司法系統的受害者。
正是在這里,受害者的人權團體呼吁正義,看到在最近的家庭辦公室調查受害者的權利團體的意愿,即受害人在司法系統的真正作用,特別是刑事司法:
要真正體現對受害者的需求,社會權利的文件中提到, “犯罪受害者”的社會權利應該被包含在新的憲章,明確的機構負責提供。
恢復性司法:
這是最現代的量刑的推理和平衡量刑的各種元素,如受害者的需要,康復的罪犯,保護社會利益。它可以適用,包括輿論,但在司法利益,那就需要知情的公眾輿論,因為這個理論是羅爾斯的性質,導致從正義的角度來看,一個理論。羅爾斯是在他的論文編發平等狀態,正義是所有政府的首要基礎和確保公正,對所有正義的訪問是在明顯的手段和結束,以確保履行正義,因此在刑事司法系統這將包括在訪問正義的罪犯,受害人的權利,并為市民表達他們的意見對一個犯了罪的量刑。羅爾斯的理論是基于幾個關鍵的想法,這是政府/社會機構和公民合作的負擔和利益的權利和義務。羅爾斯他的理論基礎上的分配正義,不平等受制于最不利的最大好處,而且每個人都有公平的機會平等條件。
因此,羅爾斯將允許恢復性司法,但報復將是不公正的,而旨在恢復和重返社會行為人將是適當的,即在為肇事者,以彌補社會,因為如果行為人的康復和教育,那么社會將受益。羅爾斯認為,被害人在量刑程序和輿論的作用是只要行為人沒有仇恨,偏見和報復,這將是輿論的恐懼,如果被允許接管訴訟。相反羅爾斯認為肇事者,公眾的意見和保護受害者的訴諸司法的權利之間需要有一個平衡。還有需要規則法律和客觀性,但這些新的考慮的領域內。這是可能的,完美的模型維多利亞量刑咨詢委員會已經滿足了這些障礙,并創造了一個系統,允許這些元素適當的混合物。
維多利亞判刑 - 刑事司法系統的受害者的角色:
VSAC成立,以確保有只是量刑以及允許受害人有足夠的法定量刑過程中的作用。在此之前,確保受害人的刑事司法系統中發揮應有的作用。然而,為了有不報應和復仇的量刑,以判決前停止審判的污點受害人的作用,密切監控。 1991年審判法第5條保證:
公正的懲罰 - 懲罰罪犯在一定程度上,這僅僅是在所有的情況下的方式;
具體和一般的威懾 - 震懾罪犯或其他人相同或類似性質觸犯;
康復 - 設立條件之內,它被認為是由法院的罪犯,可促進康復;
退約 - 聲討罪犯所從事的行為類型;
社會保障 - 保障社會從罪犯;
上述用途中的兩種或更多種的組合。
因此,這限制了受害人的作用,并確保被告人的權利和受害者的權利,是平衡社會各界的意見。它還允許在量刑過程中,必須考慮到帳戶知情的公眾輿論。這種量刑程序需要受害者和公眾的意見,考慮到通過一個徹底的監控方式,而不是讓記者有一個重要的日子和輿論嘩然。維多利亞式的量刑程序,使受害者的意見影響報告書的形式,這只是發生,如果被告被判有罪,即系統不允許這樣的意見,污點被告一個公平的聽證會的權利。此外宣判衡量對知情的公眾輿論嘩然,而不是沒有受過教育或激怒犯罪對社會和個人的影響,有一個圓的認識。
英國被害人的聲音:
政府一直側面的受害者 - 它需要對他或她的情況,旨在懲罰肇事者 - 但它沒有這樣做他們的需求有足夠的嚴謹性或敏感性。
海倫娜肯尼迪側重于在英國的刑事司法系統就確認受害者缺乏的問題。在許多方面,該系統是冷的受害者;忘記有超過報復性正義。英格蘭和威爾士量刑咨詢委員會是由法官和學者,也沒有真正的聲音在澳大利亞的受害者。警方和檢察機關采取的唯一影響報表由受害人,當受害人是在高度緊張的情況。彌漫英國的制度文化是一種信念將滿足受害者的需要; VSAC已經看到,這是情況并非如此。在許多情況下,受害人需要知道為什么發生犯罪和有能力談肇事者。
此外,這是一種方法,可以幫助犯罪者承認所受到的傷害,并希望能改過自新的罪犯,尤其是在青少年司法系統。英國系統已經認識到了這一點,并已制定替代監禁的青少年司法和刑事證據法“ 1999 。關鍵是使用恢復性司法,在澳大利亞所采取的方法,這是理解和平衡肇事者和受害者的需求。在英國的問題是,在某些級別上,它承認這種平衡的必要性,但對別人尤其是在最近的恐怖襲擊醒來忘了正義和公民自由才能有權力懲罰任何人,誰可能是一個的威脅。它遵循美國媒體炒作和被遺忘的關于正義。受害者不再數字,這樣的方法,但所需要的狀態。為了滿足受害者的需要,需要有一個包容性的作用,如答案,道歉,通知罪犯的無辜的人,預防犯罪和恢復原狀的影響,他們的罪行。
這是嚴重罪行就更難,但有時對肇事者的行為的原因,不僅有利于受害人調和他們的經驗,但它也確保政府了解對某些罪行的推理,讓肇事者明白他們的影響犯罪行為。因此,被害人在刑事司法系統的作用不僅僅是出席法庭室,但可以發揮作用的理解和預防犯罪。 VSAC已經了解這個問題,并已經推出了影響報表,以及更多樣化的咨詢面板和知情的公眾輿論的影響;而非挑' Ñ '組合,英國政府正在考慮只要它適合國家的需要。在他的領導下,這種方法是語言表達梅杰譴責更多的了解少,但海倫娜·肯尼迪認為犯罪的受害者,他們的欲望往往是理解,為什么,因為他們沒有一個犯罪的行為。
結論:
VSAC客觀的態度,使得它很難為記者創造政治迫害和法院施加壓力,施加不公正的一句在知覺輿論贊成,而具體的犯罪被害人考慮。這一目標的方法停止與恐懼,法院將成為地方媒體的政治迫害,被停止,并公正處理受害者被認為是公正平衡的同時,為被告。這將創建一個獨特的方法,刑事司法和可能前進的道路,確保受害人獲得語音,沒有政治迫害已經看到最近在美國,尤其是那些舉行Guatanamo灣。
此外,英國的系統,這是繼美國瀕臨應該聽取那些對媒體/政治迫害的做法在英國司法系統的恐懼,并按照VSAC和隨后的司法管轄區在澳大利亞所采取的方法,這是為了平衡刑事司法之間的輿論,被害人和被告人以客觀的方式作為司法巴杰帕克:
[T ]他需要刑事司法系統存在履行的受害者,并在犯罪的客觀媒介其中,同時承認了犯罪的嚴重性從受害者的角度來看和,在謀殺案,之間夾著受害者的家人和朋友已經持續虧損的幅度,嘗試提供一系列的社會利益,包括但超越只是報應的觀念。
為了做到這一點,需要從刑事司法系統方便地訪問論壇和從業人員為了強調量刑程序,以及受害者和罪犯的人權團體在英國不同的背后。
參考書目:
RG福克斯, 1995年,維多利亞女王時代的刑事訴訟法:州和聯邦莫納什法律書籍合作社
弗賴貝格, 2001年判刑選擇,量刑回顧2001Discussion的紙
弗賴貝格, 2002年,司法量刑回顧2002討論稿途徑
Graycar摩根, 2005年法律改革 - 在女性,溫莎年鑒上獲得司法23卷
家庭辦公室, 2001年,受害人的憲章回顧:可以發現在回應摘要: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/docs/vcreviewvictims.html
海倫娜·肯尼迪, 2004年,公正的法律,葡萄酒書籍
約翰·羅爾斯的正義論“(牛津大學出版社,牛津,1971年)
羅爾斯J. ,作為公平的正義:重述( E.凱利版) (2001年,哈佛大學出版社,劍橋大眾)
嶺, M. 2003年死給他們應有的倫理114 : 38-59 。
量刑咨詢委員會,關于量刑 - 宗旨和原則,可以發現:

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