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加拿大代寫留學生作業|College Undergraduates Job

瀏覽: 日期:2020-06-10

College Undergraduates Job

Introduction

Background Information

The community college system has become one of the primary settings of postsecondary education in this country (American Association of Community Colleges, 2007). Today, community colleges enroll more than eleven million students, almost 50% of all undergraduates in the United States (American Association of Community Colleges, 2007). Research into what contributes to or predicts faculty job satisfaction at the community college level is important for several reasons.

Bright (2002) suggests that few educators would deny that community college teaching is one of the most difficult jobs in higher education. Boyer (1990) acknowledged that community college teaching is discouraging and frustrating to many faculty members because they often must teach academically under-prepared students in inadequate facilities, and with limited resources. According to Keim (1989), the community college faculty is perceived to be at the bottom of the higher education hierarchy in terms of workload, image, self-esteem and salary, by other college and university professors.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Job satisfaction is a term that is difficult to describe as a single construct, and the definition of job satisfaction varies between studies (Morice & Murray, 2003; Protheroe, Lewis & Paik, 2002; and Singer, 1995). In public education, Bogler (2001) noted that job satisfaction is important in terms of teacher retention, but is also related to teacher empowerment, school culture, quality work environment, and student achievement.

Greater job satisfaction is also a critical factor to consider in terms of recruitment of new teachers into the profession (Bogler, 2001). It is not surprising that researchers suggest schools must give more attention to increasing teacher job satisfaction to recruit and retain quality personnel (Bogler, 2001).

As the importance of retaining quality teachers steadily continues to increase, numerous studies have determined factors contributing to teacher satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Colgan, 2004; Houchins, Shippen & Cattret, 2004; Kleinhenz & Ingvarson, 2000; and Reyes & Hoyle, 1992).

In higher education, a number of researchers have discussed the importance of continuous research on job satisfaction among community college faculty (Bright, 2002; Green, 2000; McBride, Munday, & Tunnell, 1992; Milosheff, 1990; Hutton & Jobe, 1985; and Benoit & Smith 1980). One of the reasons suggested for the continuous study of community college faculty, is the value of data received from such studies in developing and improving community college faculty and their practices (Truell, Price, & Joyner, 1998).

The center of teaching and reaming of any community college is the faculty (Hammrick, 2003). The job of the faculty members is clearly that of a teacher (Hammrick, 2003). Few, if any, community colleges require research or publication (Hammrick, 2003). Other research studies on faculty job satisfaction in the community college have helped administrators identify areas for professional development, as well as the indicators for effective administrator leadership (Benoit & Smith, 1980 and Hutton & Jobe, 1985).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例The need to study job satisfaction among community college faculty is magnified when one considers that one-in-five of all higher education faculty members carry out his or her teaching responsibilities as a full-time member of the community college professorate in the public sector (National Center for Education Statistics, 1999). The role of faculty is a pivotal facet of this study and higher education in general.

The central functions of higher education are reflected in the roles and responsibilities of faculty (Hamrick, 2003). Hamrick (2003) suggests that the roles of research, teaching, and service correspond to these functions and faculties are expected to fulfill these roles. In 1915 the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) was established by a group of professors from Johns Hopkins University to assist university professors in ways corresponding to those in which the American Medical Association serves doctors and the American Bar Association serves lawyers.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Concerned about the faculty role in institutional decision-making and academic freedom, the AAUP addressed many professional concerns (Hutcheson, 2003). The AAUP published a document called the “Declaration of Principles” which defined the functions of higher education as: (a) promoting the inquiry and advancing the sum of human knowledge; (b) providing general instructions to students; and (c) developing experts for various branches of public service (Hutcheson, 2003).

The roles of research, teaching, and service correspond to these functions and it is the responsibility of faculty to fulfill these roles as they perform their duties in the interest of fulfilling the academic mission of their respective institutions (Hamrick, 2003). Each role serves as a vehicle through which faculty members create and dispense knowledge to peers, students, and external addresses with the emphasis on roles varying between institutions (Hamrick, 2003).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Faculty members impart knowledge to students, as well as, assist them in the processes of learning and applying knowledge making the primary educational mission of higher education reflected in the teaching role (Hamrick, 2003). Because faculty members serve as the expert in their content area, faculty are expected to stay abreast of knowledge developing in their field, thus presenting conflict and tension between the roles of research (generating new knowledge in the field) and teaching (disseminating the new knowledge generated to students) (Hamrick, 2003).

The teaching role takes precedence over research and service roles at liberal arts colleges, regional universities, and community colleges causing most faculty to spend their time teaching (Hutcheson, 2003). Community colleges are facing new challenges in the 21stessay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例 century because of budgetary constraints, looming retirements in the faculty and leadership ranks, demands for new curricula and delivery modalities, and a student population that is becoming increasingly diverse and complex (American Association of Community Colleges, 2007). These developments mean that two-year institutions, especially faculty, must become more efficient and effective in providing educational programs and services to their communities (Hutcheson, 2003).

Currently, more is known about the students than about the status of faculty in American colleges and universities (Cunningham, 2004). Also, it has been projected that whereas student enrollment in higher education will increase in the coming decades, there will be a decline in the availability of faculty, especially those from minority groups (Cunningham, 2004).

The combination of the limited knowledge about faculty in higher education and the projected shortage in their future availability calls for more studies of faculty in American colleges and universities (Cunningham, 2004). The results of this study will add to the limited knowledge about job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty in relationship to nature of work, the teacher role, which is the primary role and function of community college faculty.

Statement of the Problem

The problem explored in this study was the job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty in relationship to nature of work. There is a lack of research that evaluates job satisfaction regarding community college faculties’ role as teachers in regards to their instructional practice. It is likely that faculty role perceptions affect their teaching styles, and consequently, effectiveness of teaching (Toman, 1995).

Very little quantitative or qualitative research has been done to investigate community college faculty (Thomas & Asunka, 1995). Thus, it will be helpful to understand how community college faculty view their respective roles and responsibilities in order to meet their own needs and the needs of the college and its students (Toman, 1995). The significance of the issue of role perceptions relates to how they influence faculty performance in their duties as teachers (Thomas & Asunka, 1995).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例If professional roles are socially constructed, then the institution, students, colleagues and discipline should have a transactional influence on the role of community college faculty (Thomas & Asunka, 1995). This study contributes insight into the role perceptions, expectations, conflicts, and satisfactions within higher education, specifically, community college teaching.

It is important to consider the views of faculty regarding their satisfaction with their roles. Satisfied faculties provide a source of strength and identity to the college atmosphere (Abraham, 1994). Abraham (1994) discovered that instructors with high and medium levels of job satisfaction were more effective than those with low job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was independent of length of service and related solely to an individual’s attitude toward his or her job (Abraham, 1994).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Additionally, satisfied faculty perceived their roles as more instrumental in help students expand their educational goals (Abraham, 1994). Knowledge such as this supports the improvement of college climates by increasing our understanding of racial, cultural, and ideological diversity, and helping colleges and universities become more representative of and responsive to those that they currently serve and will increasingly serve in the coming century (Miller, 1995).

Purpose of Study

The purpose of the study was to explore job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty in relationship to nature of work from a national perspective by using secondary data collected through The National Center of Education Statistics. There is a lack of research that evaluates job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty regarding their role as teacher. The researcher postulates that this perception has the potential to affect faculty job satisfaction, as well as their propensity to remain on or depart from the job.

Role perceptions are specific behaviors expected in a teaching position in an institution of higher education as understood by the faculty member (Blatner, 1991). Community colleges can be distinguished from four-year colleges in many ways and the roles of the faculty in these colleges differ as well (Blatner, 1991). As community college faculty members impact ever increasing numbers of students, it is helpful to examine the role of faculty, as teachers, at these institutions to better understand their role perceptions, expectations, conflicts, and satisfactions.

Theoretical Framework

For this study, a theoretical framework was utilized. Cognitive role theory has been utilized to establish the theoretical foundation of this study.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例The role of an instructor at a community college is largely determined by the values that are shared by the professional community (DeVries, 1975). Therefore, role theory (from social psychology) is an appropriate framework for describing this phenomenon and serves as the theoretical foundation of this study (Sarbin & Allen, 1969). Characteristic behavior patterns or roles are the key to role theory (Biddle, 1979).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例The theory explains roles by presuming that individuals occupy one or more positions in a particular social system and are aware of the norms and expectations of others regarding appropriate behavior in each position (Biddle, 1979). The individual also has personal ideas of what behavior is appropriate for each position and an individualistic coping style to deal with and discrepancies between self and the position, based on the feedback received from others (Biddle, 1979).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例In other words, individuals behave in ways that are different and predictable depending on their respective social identities within the context. In essence, the central view of role theory is that individuals play many parts in their lives whose basic scripts are provided by others, yet whose enactment is their own (Biddle, 1979).

Role theory also presumes that expectations are the major contributor to roles, that these expectations are learned through experience, and that individuals are aware of the expectations that they hold (Biddle, 1979). This means that role theory presumes a thoughtful, socially aware human actor (Biddle, 1979).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例The bulk of empirical role research and the most appropriate theoretical framework for this study is cognitive role theory, which is derived from cognitive social psychology. Research in the cognitive role theory area began with Moreno’s (1934) examination of role playing, when the person attempts to imitate the roles of others.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Moreno’s research generated several other studies by psychologist (Janis & Mann, 1977; McNamara & Blumer, 1982) and produced significant application and research in the area of cognitive role theory and gender differences (Blau & Goodman, 1991).

Moreno’s (1934) perspective is primarily concerned with the ways in which socially prescribed roles influence the behavior of individuals. Attention is focused on such issues as: the processes by which individuals are socialized into role behavior; the stresses placed on the individual by the necessity to perform multiple roles; the impact on the individual of the sanctions imposed for violation for norms; the ways in which the interaction between persons is structured by their role expectations of one another and themselves in their complementary positions; and the ways in which an individual’s sense of self is influenced by the various positions she occupies and the effectiveness with which she plays her roles (Moeno,1934).

Description of Independent and Dependant Variables

The independent variables are sociodemographic characteristics and nature of employment characteristics of community college instructional faculty. Sociodemographic characteristics include: (a) age, (b) gender, and (c) race/ethnicity. Nature of employment characteristics include: (a) rank, (b) employment status, and (c) tenure status The dependent variable of this study is job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例The dependent variable includes eight components of job satisfaction regarding teaching duties and professional characteristics. These eight components are: (a) authority to make decisions regarding content and methods in instructional activities; (b) institutional support for implementing technology-based instructional activities; (c) quality of equipment and facilities available for classroom use; (d) institutional support for teaching improvement (i.e., including grants, release time, and professional development funds); (f) workload; (g) salary; (h) benefits available; and (i) overall job satisfaction (See Figure 1).

Job Satisfaction

  • Authority to make decisions regarding instruction
  • Support for technology-based instructional activities
  • Quality of equipment/facilities for classroom use
  • Support for teaching improvement
  • Workload
  • Salary
  • Benefits
  • Overall job satisfaction
  • Sociodemographic Characteristics
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • Nature of Employment
  • Rank
  • Employment Status
  • Tenure Status

Figure 1.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Conceptual display of the Relationship Between Sociodemographic and Nature of Employment Characteristics and the Components of Job Satisfaction of Community College Instructional Faculty,

Research Questions

This study was guided by the following research questions.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Research Question 1:What are the sociodemographic characteristics and nature of employment of community college instructional faculty?

Research Question 2:What are the nature of employment characteristics of community college instructional faculty?

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Research Question 3: What is the level of job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty?

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Research Question 4:Is there a statistically significance difference in the level job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty based upon selected sociodemographic factors?

Research Question 5:Is there a statistically significant difference in the level of job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty based upon nature of employment?

Hypotheses

Based on the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, the conceptual framework, and the research questions, the following hypotheses were developed to examine job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty and their role as teachers.

H01:There is no statistical difference in job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty based upon gender and rank.

Ha1:There is a statistical difference in job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty based upon gender and rank.

H02essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例:There is no statistical difference in job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty based upon gender and employment status.

Ha2:There is a statistical difference in job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty based upon gender and employment status.

H03:There is no statistical difference in job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty based upon gender and tenure status.

Ha3:There is a statistical difference in job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty based upon gender and tenure status.

Limitations and Delimitations

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例The limitation to this study was it’s confinement with only community college instructional faculty. The researcher looked at job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty as it related to their role as teachers. A second limitation was the use of secondary data collected by The National Center of Education Statistics.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例By using an existing data set, the researcher did not have access to the raw data collected, only the variables reported by The National Center of Education Statistics. The researcher could only utilize on sociodemographic characteristic (gender) for the inferential statistic of multiple linear regression.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例A delimitation of this study was that the results could only be generalized to community college instructional faculty. Results of this study could not be generalized for instructional faculty at private two-year or public four-year institutions.

Significance of the Study

Study on this subject and especially in this area is still very rare. Bright (2002) however, has thrown interesting light on aspects of job satisfaction of community college faculty. Job retention relates both to the individual’s immediate professional satisfaction and future employment plans (Bright, 2002). While a number of factors may affect job satisfaction and retention, community college decision makers may need to scan the institution’s organizational culture to examine polices and practices that contribute to job retention and satisfaction (Bright, 2002).

It is already well known that community college faculty play an important role in educating millions of students (American Association of Community Colleges, 2007). Currently few studies focus on the nature of work done by community college faculty and their satisfaction on the job (Green, 2000). The purpose of this study was to delineate the factors that influence community college instructional faculty satisfaction of their work.

Definition of Terms

Researchers frequently use similar terms that may have slightly different meanings. To avoid this confusion, the following terms are used throughout this study and are defined for the reader in the context of this research.

Archival Research - A non-experimental research strategy in which the researcher uses existing records as a data source (Bordens & Abbott, 2005).

Causal-Comparative Research - A non-experimental strategy that tries to show cause and effect relationships among two or more variables. This type of research attempts to attribute a change in the effect variable(s) when the cause variable(s) cannot be manipulated (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2003).

Community Colleges- Two-year institutions of higher education that are classified by Carnegie 2000 (National Center of Education Statistics, 2008).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Demographics - Common characteristics used for population segmentation. Typical demographic data points include age, gender, postal code, and income. Data related to population size, components of change, and characteristics (i.e., age, education, etc.)(Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2003).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Job Satisfaction- refers to an individual’s personal affective evaluations of their work environment; the result of an individual’s work expectations being fulfilled by the environment; a pleasant affective state; and their personal appraisal of the extent to which expectations about employment are being fulfilled by the work environment (Lofquist & Dawis, 1991).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例National Study of Postsecondary Faculty NSOPF:04 Faculty Instrument - For the purpose of this study, the following three sections of this instrument were used and are described below (National Center of Education Statistics, 2008).

Job Satisfaction - refers to the following eight components: (a) authority to make decisions regarding content and methods in instructional activities; (b) institutional support for implementing technology-based instructional activities; (c) quality of equipment and facilities available for classroom use; (d) institutional support for teaching improvement (i.e., including grants, release time, and professional development funds); (f) workload; (g) salary; (h) benefits available; and (i) overall job satisfaction (National Center of Education Statistics, 2008).

Nature of Employment - refers to the following components: (a) instructional duties, (b) instructional duties related to credited courses/activities, (c) faculty status, (d) confirm study ineligibility, (e) principal activity, (f) employed full or part time at the institution, (g) part-time employment is primary employment, (h) part-time but preferred full-time position, (i) year began current job, (j) rank, (k) rank, year attained professor or associate professor, (l) tenure status, (m) tenure, year attained at any postsecondary institution, (n) union status, (o) union status, reason not a member, (p) principal field of teaching-verbatim, and (q) principal field of teaching-autocode (National Center of Education Statistics, 2008).

Sociodemographic Characteristics - refers to the following components: (a) age, year of birth, (b) gender, (c) race/ethnicity, (d) disability, (e) marital status, (f) dependent children, (g) born in the United States, and (h) citizenship status (National Center of Education Statistics, 2008).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Quantitative Research - describes phenomena in numbers and measures (Wiersma, 2000).

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Role Conflict- the amount of disagreement (incongruence) between the contractual role obligations of an individual and his/her own expectations of the position (Blatner, 1991).

Role Perceptions- specific behaviors expected in a teaching position in an institution of higher education as understood by the faculty member (Blatner, 1991).

Summary

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例This chapter provided background information on the topic of job satisfaction and the theoretical framework for this study that examined job satisfaction of community college instructional faculty and their role as teachers. The next chapter will provide a review of the literature on the current research regarding job satisfaction and role theory.

essay技巧_critical essay怎么写_expository essay範例Chapter three discuses the methodology used to implement this study. Chapter four presents the research findings and results of the study. Lastly, the recommendations for further research and implications for practice are discussed in chapter five.

 

大學本科生招聘
介紹
背景資料
社區學院系統已成為一個中學后教育的主要設置在這個國家(美國社區學院協會,2007年) 。如今,社區學院招收超過1100萬的學生,近50%的大學生在美國(美國社區學院, 2007年協會) 。到什么貢獻或在社區學院的水平預測教師工作滿意度的研究是重要的幾個原因。
光明(2002)表明,一些教育工作者會否認,社區學院的教學是在高等教育中最困難的工作之一。博耶(1990)承認社區學院的教學是令人沮喪的和令人沮喪的許多教師,因為他們經常要教的學術準備不足的學生在設施不足,資源有限的。據凱姆(1989) ,社區學院的教師被認為是高等教育的層次結構,在底部的工作量,圖像,自我自尊和工資,其他大學和大學教授。
工作滿意度是一個術語,很難形容,作為一個單一的構造,工作滿意度之間變化研究(摩里瑟穆雷, 2003 Protheroe ,劉易斯和白先生, 2002年和歌手, 1995年)的定義。在公共教育, Bogler (2001)指出,工作滿意度是非常重要的教師保留,但也涉及到教師賦權,學校文化,優質的工作環境,和學生成績。
更大的工作滿足感是在招聘新教師,考慮到專業( Bogler ,2001)也是一個關鍵因素。這并不奇怪,研究人員建議,學校必須給予更多的關注,以提高教師的工作滿意度,招募和保留高素質人才( Bogler ,2001) 。
留住高素質的教師隊伍的重要性穩步持續增加,許多研究已經確定因素,教師滿意或不滿意(科爾根, 2004年Houchins Shippen Cattret的,2004年Kleinhenz & Ingvarson的, 2000年和雷耶斯霍伊爾,1992 ) 。
在高等教育中,一些研究人員已經討論的重要性,不斷的研究,在社區大學教師工作滿意度(明亮, 2002年, 2000年,綠色麥克布賴德,曼迪塔內爾, 1992年; Milosheff ,1990 ;赫頓喬布,1985 ;伯努瓦·史密斯, 1980 ) 。不斷的學習社區大學教師建議的原因之一,就是從這樣的研究,發展和完善社區大學的教師和他們的做法( Truell ,價格,喬伊納, 1998)接收的數據的價值。
任何社區學院的教學和擴孔中心的的教師( Hammrick ,2003年) 。教職員的工作顯然是一個的老師( Hammrick , 2003) 。很少,如果有的話,社區學院需要研究或的出版物( Hammrick , 2003) 。其他社區學院教師工作滿意度研究已經幫助,管理員識別領域的專業發展,以及有效的管理者領導的指標(伯努瓦·史密斯,1980年和赫頓,1985喬布) 。
需要研究在社區大學教師工作滿意度的放大,當一個人認為,在所有高等教育教職員五開展在公共部門作為專職委員社區學院professorate的他或她的教學責任(教育統計, 1999年全國中心) 。教師的作用是這項研究的一個關鍵方面和高等教育。
高等教育的中心職能是反映教師(哈姆里克,2003年)中的角色和職責。哈姆里克(2003年)預計將履行這些角色對應這些功能和院系的研究,教學和服務的角色。 1915年美國大學教授(AAUP )協會成立了由一組從約翰斯·霍普金斯大學教授協助大學教授對應于那些在美國醫學協會提供的醫生和美國律師協會的律師提供服務的方式。
關注教師角色的機構的決策和學術自由,的AAUP解決許多專業問題(哈奇森,2003年) 。 AAUP發表一份名為“宣言”的原則“,明確高等教育的功能:(一)促進詢問和推進人類知識的總和, (b)提供一般指令要求學生;及(c)開發專家各種公共服務部門(哈奇森,2003年) 。
科研,教學和服務的角色對應這些功能,它是教師的責任履行各自機構的學術使命(哈姆里克,2003年)的利益,因為他們履行自己的職責,履行這些角色。每個角色作為教職員車輛同行,學生,地址和外部地址的重點不同機構之間(哈姆里克,2003年)的角色創建和分配知識。
教職員向學生傳授知識,以及協助他們在學習和運用知識,使初級教育,高等教育的使命體現在教學中的作用(哈姆里克,2003年)的過程。因為教師成員在其內容區域作為專家,教師掌握的知識,在各自的領域發展,從而提出研究的角色(在該領域產生新的知識)和教學(傳播新知識之間的沖突和緊張生成學生) (哈姆里克,2003年) 。
教學中的作用的優先級高于文科院校,區域大學和社區學院造成多數教師把時間花在教學(哈奇森,2003年)的研究和服務角色。社區大學在21世紀面臨新的挑戰,由于預算的限制,若隱若現的退休教師和領導行列,新課程和交付方式,以及學生人數的需求日趨多樣化和復雜(美國社區學院協會, 2007年)。這些發展意味著為期兩年的機構,尤其是教師,必須變得更加高效和有效地提供教育計劃和服務他們的社區(哈奇森,2003年) 。
目前,更多的了解學生比教師的地位在美國學院和大學(坎寧安,2004) 。此外,它已經預計,而學生高等教育入學率在未來的幾十年里將增加,但將在教員的可用性下降,尤其是那些來自少數族群(坎寧安,2004) 。
高等教育和預計在未來可用性短缺相結合,教師的知識有限,需要更多的研究在美國學院和大學教師(坎寧安,2004年) 。這項研究的結果將增加有限的知識社區學院指導教師工作滿意度工作性質的關系,教師的作用,這是主要的社區學院教師的角色和功能。
問題的聲明
在這項研究中探討的問題是社區學院指導教師的工作滿意度工作性質的關系。有一個缺乏研究,評估工作的滿意度,社區大學院系問候他們的教學實踐中教師的角色。這可能是教師角色的看法,影響他們的教學風格,因此,教學的成效(托曼,1995年) 。
非常小的定量或定性的研究已經做了調查社區學院教師(托馬斯& Asunka的,1995年) 。因此,這將是有助于了解社區大學教師如何查看他們各自的角色和職責,以滿足自己的需要和需求的高校和學生(托曼,1995年) 。角色認知問題的意義涉及到它們如何影響教師績效教師(托馬斯& Asunka 1995 )在他們的職責。
如果職業角色是社會建構的,那么應該有該機構,學生,同事和紀律事務的影響力社區,大專教師(托馬斯& Asunka 1995 )的作用。這項研究有助于洞察角色知覺,期望,沖突,以及在高等教育,特別是社區學院的教學滿意。
重要的是要考慮教師方面的意見,他們的滿意度與他們的角色。滿意的院系提供了源的實力和身份的學院氛圍(亞伯拉罕, 1994 ) 。亞伯拉罕(1994)發現,教師更有效地比那些與工作滿意度低與高,中等水平的工作滿意度。工作滿意度是獨立工齡僅涉及一個人的他或她的工作態度(亞伯拉罕, 1994 ) 。
此外,滿意的教師認為自己的角色更加有益的幫助學生擴大他們的教育目標(亞伯拉罕, 1994 ) 。像這樣的知識支持通過增加我們的種族,文化和意識形態的多樣性的理解,并幫助高校變得更具代表性和響應,他們目前和服務將日益成為在新世紀(米勒改善大學的氣候,1995)。
研究的目的
這項研究的目的是探索社區學院指導教師的工作滿意度,工作性質的關系,從全國來看,通過使用二次通過國家教育統計中心收集的數據。有一個缺乏研究評估工作滿意度的社區學院教學的教師,他們作為教師的角色。研究人員假設,這種看法有可能影響到教師的工作滿意度,以及他們留在或離開工作的傾向。
角色的看法是在高等教育機構在教學中的地位,理解教員(挫折感,1991)預期的具體行為。社區學院可以區別于四年制大學在許多方面在這些院校的教師的角色也不同(挫折感,1991) 。由于社區學院教職員影響的學生人數不斷增加,這是有幫助的檢查教師的作用,作為教師,在這些機構,以便更好地了解他們的角色的看法,期望,沖突和滿意度。
理論框架
在這項研究中,已動用了一個理論框架。認知角色理論已動用本研究建立的理論基礎。
在社區學院講師的作用在很大程度上取決于DeVries醫師,專業社區( 1975)所共享的價值觀。因此,從社會心理學的角色理論( )用于描述這種現象,是一個適當的框架,作為本研究的理論基礎(沙賓艾倫,1969) 。特征的行為模式或角色的關鍵角色理論(比德爾,1979) 。
理論解釋假定個人占用一個或多個職位,在一個特定的社會制度,都知道別人在每個位置相關的行為(比德爾,1979)的規范和期望的角色。個人也有個人的想法,什么樣的行為是適當的每個位置和個人主義的應對方式來處理和自我的位置,從別人的基礎上得到的反饋(比德爾,1979)之間的差異。
換言之,個人行為的方式是不同的,可預測的范圍內根據其各自的社會身份。從本質上講,個人的角色理論的核心觀點是其基本的腳本是由他人提供,但其制定是自己的(比德爾,1979)在他們的生活中扮演許多地方。
角色理論還假定預期的主要貢獻者的角色,這些期望通過經驗教訓,個人意識到的期望,他們持有(比德爾,1979) 。這意味著,角色理論假定一個深思熟慮的,人類社會意識的演員(比德爾,1979) 。
這項研究的經驗作用的研究和最合適的理論框架的大部分是認知的,這是來自社會認知心理學的角色理論。在認知角色理論領域的研究始于莫雷諾的角色扮演(1934年)進士,當人嘗試模仿別人的角色。
心理學家(賈尼斯&曼, 1977年麥克納馬拉布魯默, 1982) ,莫雷諾的研究產生的其他一些研究,并產生重大的應用和研究領域的認知角色理論和性別差異(布勞古德曼,1991) 。
莫雷諾(1934年)的角度來看,主要關注的社會規定的角色如何影響個人的行為。注意力都集中在這樣的問題:個人社會角色行為過程;強調放在個人的必要性,執行多個角色的影響,對個人的制裁違反規范的方式人之間的相互作用結構由他們的角色的期望1另一個和自己互補的位置的方式在其中一個人的自我感的影響的各個位置,她占有和與她扮演她的角色的有效性( Moeno ,1934) 。
的獨立和家屬變量的描述
獨立變量是社區學院指導教師的就業特點的社會人口特征和性質。社會人口學特征包括: (一)年齡, (二)性別,及(c)的種族/族裔。就業特征的性質包括: (一)等級, (二)就業狀況,以及(c)任期狀態,本研究的因變量是社區學院指導教師的工作滿意度。
因變量工作滿意度包括八個部分,對教學工作和專業特點。這八個部分:(一)有權作出決定,在教學活動中的有關內容和方法; (二)機構支持實施技術為基礎的教學活動; (三)質量可以在課堂上使用的設備和設施; (四)機構支持教學改進(即包括補助,發布時間,及專業發展基金) , (六)的工作量; (七)工資; (八)福利;及(i)整體工作滿意度(見圖1 ) 。
工作滿意度
管理局作出決定,有關指令
支持技術為基礎的教學活動
質量在課堂上使用的設備/設施
支持改善教學
工作量
薪水
優點
總體工作滿意度
社會人口學特征
年齡
性別
種族/民族
就業性質
排名
就業狀況
權屬狀態
圖1。
概念顯示就業特性和組件社區學院教學教師的工作滿意度的社會人口與自然的關系,
研究問題
指導這項研究是由以下研究問題。
研究問題1 :什么是社區學院就業指導教師的社會人口學特征和性質?
研究問題2 :什么是社區學院指導教師的就業特點的性質?
研究問題3:什么是社區學院指導教師的工作滿意度的水平嗎?
研究問題4 :是否有統計學意義的差異水平的工作滿意度社區學院指導教師根據選定的社會人口統計學因素?
研究問題5 :是否有社區學院指導教師根據工作性質,工作滿意度水平有統計學顯著差異?
假設
基于語句的問題,研究的目的,概念框架,并在研究問題,以下假設開發,檢查社區學院教學的教師和他們的角色作為教師的工作滿意度。
H01 :社區根據性別和等級的大學教學的教師工作滿意度差異無統計學意義。
HA1 :社區學院指導教師根據性別和等級的工作滿意度有一個顯著差異。
H02 :是根據性別和就業狀況的社區學院指導教師工作滿意度無統計學差異。
HA2 :社區學院指導教師根據性別和就業狀況的工作滿意度有一個顯著差異。
H03 :社區學院指導教師根據性別和任期狀態工作滿意度差異無統計學意義。
HA3 :社區學院指導教師根據性別和任期狀態的工作滿意度有一個顯著差異。
限制和劃界
這項研究的限制是它的約束與唯一的社區大學教學的教師。研究員看著社區學院指導教師的工作滿意度,因為這關系到他們作為教師的角色。第二個限制是由國家教育統計中心收集使用輔助數據。
通過使用現有數據集,研究人員并沒有收集的原始數據的訪問,只有變量由國家教育統計中心報告。研究人員只能利用多元線性回歸統計推理的社會人口學特征(性別) 。
本研究劃界的結果只能是廣義的社區學院教學的教師。在私人兩年或公立四年制院校教學的教師,這項研究的結果可能不能一概而論。
該研究的意義
關于這個問題,尤其是在這方面的研究仍是非常罕見的。然而光明(2002) ,已經拋出有趣社區學院教師工作滿意度的各個方面。保留工作既涉及到個人的即時的專業滿意度和未來的就業計劃(明亮, 2002) 。雖然有許多因素會影響工作滿意度和忠誠度,社區學院的決策者可能需要掃描該機構的組織文化研究的政策和做法,有助于保持工作和滿意度(明亮, 2002) 。
這已經是眾所周知,社區大學教師教育以百萬計的學生(美國社區學院協會,2007年)中扮演重要的角色。目前很少有研究關注于社區學院的教師和他們對工作的滿意度(綠色,2000年)所做的工作的性質。這項研究的目的是劃定社區大學教學的教師他們的工作滿意度的影響因素。
術語的定義
研究人員經常使用類似的條款,可能有略微不同的含義。為了避免這種混淆,下列詞匯用于整個研究的背景下,本研究為讀者定義。
檔案研究 - 非實驗研究戰略, ,研究員使用現有的記錄作為數據源( Bordens雅培,2005年) 。
因果關系的比較研究 - 非實驗性的策略,試圖展示兩個或兩個以上變量之間的因果關系。這種類型的研究試圖屬性的變化的原因變量(s)可以被操縱的影響變量( S) (癭,與博格,2003)。
社區學院兩年的2000年卡內基(美國國家教育統計中心,2008)被歸類高等教育機構。
人口 - 用于人口分割的共同特點。典型的人口統計數據點,包括年齡,性別,郵政編碼,和收入。人口規模,組件的變化和特點(即,年齡,教育,等等) (癭,博格,2003年)的相關數據。
工作滿意度是指一個人的個人情感評估他們的工作環境,個人的工作預期的結果正應驗環境,愉快的情感狀態;和其個人程度鑒定,對就業的預期履行由工作環境( Lofquist Dawis ,1991) 。
國家研究高中后學院NSOPF : 04師資儀器 - 對于這項研究的目的,以下三個部分使用本儀器,并說明如下(教育統計,2008年全國中心) 。
工作滿意度 - 是指以下八個部分組成:(一)有權作出決定,在教學活動中的有關內容和方法; (二)機構支持實施技術為基礎的教學活動; (三)質量可以在課堂上使用的設備和設施; (四)改善教學體制支持(即,包括補助,發布時間,及專業發展基金) ; (F)的工作量; (七)工資; (八)福利;及(i)整體工作滿意度(國家中心教育統計, 2008年) 。
就業性質 - 指的是以下部分組成: (一)教學職責, (二)教學職責計入課程/活動, (三)教師的地位, ( d)確認研究禁賽,(E)的主要活動, (F )該機構雇用全職或兼職, (七)兼職工作是基層就業(H)兼職全職職位,但首選(一)年開始,目前的工作,(J)等級, (K )排名,今年達到教授或副教授, (L)任期狀態, (米)的任期內,每年達到在任何中學后教育機構,工會地位( N) , (O)工會的地位,究其原因還不是會員, (P)主要教學領域逐字及(q)主要教學領域的自動編碼(國家教育統計中心,2008) 。
社會人口學特征 - 指的是以下幾部分組成: (一)年齡,出生年份性別, (二) , (三)種族/種族, (四)殘疾,婚姻狀況(五) , (六)受供養子女, (G )出生在美國及(h)的公民身份(國家教育統計中心,2008) 。
定量研究 - 在數量和措施(維爾斯馬,2000)描述的現象。
角色沖突金額分歧(不一致性)之間的合約角色義務的個人和他/她自己期望的位置(挫折感,1991) 。
角色認知的具體行為,預計在高等教育機構在教學中的地位,理解教員(挫折感,1991) 。
總結
本章提供的背景資料,對工作滿意度的話題,這項研究的理論框架,研究社區學院教學的教師和他們的角色作為教師的工作滿意度。下一章將提供對當前有關工作滿意度和角色理論的研究文獻的審查。
第三章集中論述實施這項研究使用的方法。第四章介紹的研究結果和研究結果。最后,建議進一步研究和實踐意義,在第五章討論。

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